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E-discovery & Compliance Solutions, GLOSSARY of Ediscovery Terms

eDiscovery & Comliance Solutions Glossary:

Active Data:

Active data is information residing on the direct access storage media of computer systems, which is readily visible to the operating system and/or application software with which it was created and immediately accessible to users without restoration, modification ,or reconstruction (i.e., word processing and spreadsheet files, programs and files used by the computer’s operating system).

Active Records:

Active records are records related to current, ongoing or in process activities and are referred to on a regular basis to respond to day-to-day operational requirements. An active record resides in native application format and is accessible for purposes of business processing with no restrictions on alteration beyond normal business rules.


Evidence that is acceptable or allowable in court.


An application is a collection of one or more related software programs that enable a user to enter, store, view, modify or extract information from files or databases. The term is commonly used in place of "program," or "software." Applications may include word processors, Internet browsing tools and spreadsheets.

Archival Data:

Archival data is information that is not directly accessible to the user of a computer system but that the organization maintains for long-term storage and record keeping purposes. Archival data may be written to removable media such as a CD, magneto-optical media, tape or other electronic storage device, or may be maintained on system hard drives in compressed formats (i.e., data stored on backup tapes or disks, usually for disaster recovery purposes).

Archive/Electronic Archive:

Archives are long term repositories for the storage of records. Electronic archives preserve the content, prevent or track alterations and control access to electronic records.


An attachment is a record or file associated with another record for the purpose of storage or transfer. There may be multiple attachments associated with a single "parent" or "master" record. The attachments and associated record may be managed and processed as a single unit. In common use, this term refers to a file (or files) associated with an e-mail for transfer and storage as a single message unit. Because in certain circumstances the context of the attachment—for example, the parent e-mail and its associated metadata—can be important, an organization should consider whether its policy should authorize or restrict the disassociation of attachments from their parent records.


An attribute is a characteristic of data that sets it apart from other data, such as location, length, or type. The term attribute is sometimes used synonymously with "data element" or "property."

ASCII (Acronym for American Standard Code):

ASCII is a code that assigns a number to each key on the keyboard. ASCII text does not include special formatting features and therefore can be exchanged and read by most computer systems.

Author/ Originator:

The author of a document is the person, office or designated position responsible for its creation or issuance. In the case of a document in the form of a letter, the author or originator is usually indicated on the letterhead or by signature. In some cases, the software application producing the document may capture the author’s identity and associate it with the document.


To create a copy of data as a precaution against the loss or damage of the original data. Most users backup some of their files, and many computer networks utilize automatic backup software to make regular copies of some or all of the data on the network. Some backup systems use digital audio tape (DAT) as a storage medium.

Backup Data:

Backup data is information that is not presently in use by an organization and is routinely stored separately upon portable media, to free up space and permit data recovery in the event of disaster.

Backup Tape:

Backup or disaster recovery tapes are portable media used to store data that is not presently in use by an organization to free up space but still allow for disaster recovery.

Backup Tape Recycling:

Backup tape recycling is the process whereby an organization’s backup tapes are overwritten with new backup data, usually on a fixed schedule (i.e., the use of nightly backup tapes for each day of the week with the daily backup tape for a particular day being overwritten on the same day the following week; weekly and monthly backups being stored offsite for a specified period of time before being placed back in the rotation).


The amount of information or data that can be sent over a network connection in a given period of time. Bandwidth is usually stated in bits per second (bps), kilobits per second (kbps), or megabits per second (mps).

Basic De-duplication:

Performed on a select and limited basis, such as for file names and types, and is usually based on the hash value of the entire electronic document.

Bates Production Number:

A bates production number is a tracking number assigned to each page of each document in the production set.


Mathematical base 2, or numbers composed of a series of zeros and ones. Since zeroes and ones can be easily represented by two voltage levels on an electronic device, the binary number system is widely used in digital computing.


A measurement of data. It is the smallest unit of data. A bit is either the "1" or "0" component of the binary code. A collection of bits is put together to form a byte.


Blogs, also referred to as Web logs, are frequent, chronological Web publications consisting of links and postings. The most recent posting appears at the top of the page.


Eight bits. A byte is a collection of bits used by computers to represent a character (i.e., "a", "1", or "&"). A "megabyte" is one million bytes or eight million bits or a "gigabyte" is one billion bytes or eight billion bits. 1 gigabyte = 1,000 megabytes. 1 terabyte = 1,000 gigabytes.


A type a computer memory that temporarily stores frequently used information for quick access.


Data storage medium that uses compact discs to store about 1,500 floppy discs worth of data.


A process used to maintain and document the chronological history of electronic evidence. A chain-of-custody ensures that the data presented is "as originally acquired" and has not been altered prior to admission into evidence.


Document coding is the process of capturing case-relevant information (i.e. author, date authored, date sent, recipient, date opened, etc.) from a paper document


A technology that reduces the size of a file. Compression programs are valuable to network users because they help save both time and bandwidth.

Computer Forensics:

Computer forensics is the use of specialized techniques for recovery, authentication, and analysis of electronic data when a case involves issues relating to reconstruction of computer usage, examination of residual data, and authentication of data by technical analysis or explanation of technical features of data and computer usage. Computer forensics requires specialized expertise that goes beyond normal data collection and preservation techniques available to end-users or system support personnel.


Small data files written to a user's hard drive by a Web server. These files contain specific information that identifies users (i.e., passwords and lists of pages visited).

DAT (Digital Audio Tape):

Used as a storage medium in some backup systems.


Information stored on the computer system and used by applications to accomplish tasks.

Data Extraction:

The process of removing files and meta-data from backup tapes.


De-Duplication ("De-Duping") is the process of comparing electronic records based on their characteristics and removing duplicate records from the data set.

Deleted Data:

Deleted data is data that, in the past, existed on the computer as live data and which has been deleted by the computer system or end-user activity. Deleted data remains on storage media in whole or in part until it is overwritten by ongoing usage or "wiped" with a software program specifically designed to remove deleted data. Even after the data itself has been wiped, directory entries, pointers, or other metadata relating to the deleted data may remain on the computer.

Deleted File:

A file with disk space that has been designated as available for reuse. The deleted file remains intact until it has been overwritten with a new file.

Deleted Files and Data:

Recoverable information from deleted files and data may be stored in unallocated or slack space on a computer hard drive.


Deletion is the process whereby data is removed from active files and other data storage structures on computers and rendered inaccessible except using special data recovery tools designed to recover deleted data.


Usually refers to an individual PC -- a user's desktop computer.


Storing information as a string of digits – namely "1"s and "0"s.

Disc (Disk):

It may be a floppy disk, or it may be a hard disk. Either way, it is a magnetic storage medium on which data is digitally stored. A disc may also refer to a CD-ROM.


A pre-trial process in which each party tries to find all the information held by the other party and by certain third parties that is relevant, probative and can be admitted into evidence at trial. Each party is required to cooperate with the other to the extent required by the relevant rules of civil procedure.

Distributed Data:

Distributed data is that information belonging to an organization which resides on portable media and non-local devices such as home computers, laptop computers, floppy disks, CD-ROMs, personal digital assistants ("PDAs"), wireless communication devices (i.e., Blackberry), zip drives, Internet repositories such as e-mail hosted by Internet service providers or portals, Web pages, and the like. Distributed data also includes data held by third parties such as application service providers and business partners.


Fed. R. Civ. P. 34(a) defines a document as "including writings, drawings, graphs, charts, photographs, phone records, and other data compilations." In the electronic discovery world, a document also refers to a collection of pages representing an electronic file. E-mails, attachments, databases, word documents, spreadsheets, and graphic files are all examples of electronic documents.

Dynamic De-duplication:

Dynamic de-duplication process is executed as the data flows off the tapes, avoiding large and expensive processing and storage requirements.

Electronic Discovery:

The discovery of electronic documents and data including e-mail, Web pages, word processing files, computer databases, and virtually anything that is stored on a computer. Technically, documents and data are "electronic" if they exist in a medium that can only be read through the use of computers. Such media include cache memory, magnetic disks (such as computer hard drives or floppy disks), optical disks (such as DVDs or CDs), and magnetic tapes.

Electronic Discovery Reference Model (EDRM) Glossary:

The EDRM Glossary for electronic discovery is a working compilation of key terms gathered from member organizations of the EDRM.

Electronic Evidence:

According to Black's law dictionary, evidence is "any species of proof, or probative matter, legally presented at the trial of an issue, by the act of the parties and through the medium of witnesses, records, documents, exhibits, concrete objects, etc. for the purpose of inducing belief in the minds of the court or jury as to their contention." Electronic information (like paper) generally is admissible into evidence in a legal proceeding.

Electronic Mail Message:

Commonly referred to as "e-mail", an electronic mail message is a document created or received via an electronic mail system, including brief notes, formal or substantive narrative documents, and any attachments, such as word processing and other electronic documents, which may be transmitted with the message.

Electronic Record:

Information recorded in a form that requires a computer or other machine to process it and that otherwise satisfies the definition of a record.


The whole of an electronic document containing the message envelope and message content (attachments, etc.).

Email Message Store:

A top most e-mail message store is the location in which an e-mail system stores its data. For instance, an Outlook PST (personal storage folder) is a type of top most file that is created when a user’s Microsoft Outlook mail account is set up. Additional Outlook PST files for that user can be created for backing up and archiving Outlook folders, messages, forms and files. Similar to a filing cabinet, which is not considered part of the paper documents contained in it, a top most store generally is not considered part of a family.


A procedure that renders the contents of a message or file unintelligible to anyone not authorized to read it.


Electronically Stored Information


A common way of networking PCs to create a LAN.


An Internet based access method to a corporate intranet site by limited or total access through a security firewall. This type of access is typically utilized in cases of joint venture and vendor client relationships.

Family Relationship:

A family relationship is formed among two or more documents that have a connection or relatedness because of some factor.

Family Range:

A family range describes the range of documents from the first Bates production number assigned to the first page of the top most parent document through the last Bates production number assigned to the last page of the last child document.


A collection of data of information stored under a specified name on a disk.

File Extension:

A tag of three or four letters, preceded by a period, which identifies a data file's format or the application used to create the file. File extensions can streamline the process of locating data. For example, if one is looking for incriminating pictures stored on a computer, one might begin with the .gif and .jpg files.

File Server:

When several or many computers are networked together in a LAN situation, one computer may be utilized as a storage location for files for the group. File servers may be employed to store e-mail, financial data, word processing information or to back-up the network.

File Sharing:

One of the key benefits of a network is the ability to share files stored on the server among several users.


Electronic filtering of e-mails and files for privilege or by keyword, file type or name. Filtering removes files that don't fit the search criteria and reduces the volume of data that requires further investigation.


A set of related programs that protect the resources of a private network from users from other networks.


An increasingly rare storage medium consisting of a thin magnetic film disk housed in a protective sleeve.

Forensically Sound Procedures:

Procedures used for acquiring electronic information in a manner that ensures it is "as originally discovered" and is reliable enough to be admitted into evidence. Such procedures are defined in part by the US Department of Justice publication "Searching and Seizing Computers and Obtaining Electronic Evidence in Criminal Investigations."


The internal structure of a file, which defines the way it is stored and used. Specific applications may define unique formats for their data (i.e., "MS Word document file format"). Many files may only be viewed or printed using their originating application or an application designed to work with compatible formats. Computer storage systems commonly identify files by a naming convention that denotes the format (and therefore the probable originating application) (i.e., "DOC" for Microsoft Word document files; "XLS" for Microsoft Excel spreadsheet files; "TXT" for text files; and "HTM" (for Hypertext Markup Language (HTML) files such as Web pages). Users may choose alternate naming conventions, but this may affect how the files are treated by applications.


Federal Rules of Civil Procedure

Fragmented Data:

Fragmented data is live data that has been broken up and stored in various locations on a single hard drive or disk.

FTP (File Transfer Protocol):

An Internet protocol that enables you to transfer files between computers on the Internet.

GIF (Graphic interchange format):

A computer compression format for pictures.

Gigabyte (GB):

A gigabyte is a measure of computer data storage capacity and is a billion (1,000,000,000) bytes.

GUI (Graphical User Interface):

A set of screen presentations and metaphors that utilize graphic elements such as icons in an attempt to make an operating system easier to use.

Hard Drive:

The primary storage unit on PCs, consisting of one or more magnetic media platters on which digital data can be written and erased magnetically.


an algorithm that creates a value to verify duplicate electronic documents. A hash value serves as a digital thumbprint.

HTML (Hypertext Markup Language):

The tag-based ASCII language used to create pages on the Web.

Images (or forensic duplicates or mirror images):

A bit-by-bit duplicate of a backup tape or hard drive that is forensically sound.

Inactive Record:

Inactive records are those Records related to closed, completed, or concluded activities. Inactive Records are no longer routinely referenced, but must be retained in order to fulfill reporting requirements or for purposes of audit or analysis. Inactive records generally reside in a long-term storage format remaining accessible for purposes of business processing only with restrictions on alteration. In some business circumstances, inactive records may be reactivated.

Instant Messaging- IM:

Instant Messaging is a form of electronic communication which involves immediate correspondence between two or more users who are all online simultaneously.

Internal Inquiries:

A close examination of a matter in a search for information or truth that is internal to a company.


The interconnecting global public network made by connecting smaller shared public networks. The most well-known Internet is the Internet, the worldwide network of networks which use the TCP/IP protocol to facilitate information exchange.


A network of interconnecting smaller private networks that are isolated from the public Internet.


An inquiry usually initiated by a government agency.

IP Address:

A string of four numbers separated by periods used to represent a computer on the Internet.

IS/IT (Information Systems Technology):

Usually refers to the people who make computers and computer systems run.

ISP (Internet Service Provider):

A business that delivers access to the Internet.

JPEG (Joint Photographic Experts Group):

An image compression standard for photographs.

Keyword Search:

A search for documents containing one or more words that are specified by a user.

Kilobyte (Kb):

Approximately one thousand bytes of data is 1Kb of data.

LAN (Local area network):

Usually refers to a network of computers in a single building or other discrete location.

Legacy Data:

Legacy Data is information in the development of which an organization may have invested significant resources and which has retained its importance, but which has been created or stored by the use of software and/or hardware that has been rendered outmoded or obsolete.

Legal Hold:

A legal hold is a communication issued as a result of current or anticipated litigation, audit, government investigation or other such matter that suspends the normal disposition or processing of records. The specific communication to business or IT organizations may also be called a "hold," "preservation order," "suspension order," "freeze notice," "hold order," or "hold notice."


The physical material used to store electronic data. Media includes hard drives, backup tapes, computer disks, CD DVD, PDA, memory, etc.

Media Conversion:

Moving data from one type of media to another such as tape to CD.


The process of combining various e-mail files (i.e. Microsoft Outlook's .pst) into one file for de-duplication purposes.


Metadata is information about a particular data set which may describe, for example, how, when, and by whom it was received, created, accessed, and/or modified and how it is formatted. Some metadata, such as file dates and sizes, can easily be seen by users; other metadata can be hidden or embedded and unavailable to computer users who are not technically adept. Metadata is generally not reproduced in full form when a document is printed. (Typically referred to by the less informative shorthand phrase "data about data," it describes the content, quality, condition, history, and other characteristics of the data.)


Management information systems.

Migrated Data:

Migrated Data is information that has been moved from one database or format to another, usually as a result of a change from one hardware or software technology to another. Mirror Image: Used in computer forensic investigations and some electronic discovery investigations, a mirror image is a bit-by-bit copy of a computer hard drive that ensures the operating system is not altered during the forensic examination.


A piece of hardware that lets one computer talk to another computer over a phone line.


The process of making off-line data available for on-line processing. For example, placing a magnetic tape in a drive and setting up the software to recognize or read that tape. The terms "load" and "loading" are often used in conjunction with, or synonymously with, "mount" and "mounting" (as in "mount and load a tape"). "Load" may also refer to the process of transferring data from mounted media to another media or to an on-line system.

Native Environment:

The original configuration (software, passwords, server configuration, etc.) of a backup tape or e-mail system (i.e. Microsoft Exchange).

Native File:

A file saved in the format of the original application used to create the file. Dealing with native files can minimize expensive per-page costs for the traditional TIFF and/or PDF processing and will maximize the relevant information available from the file.

Native Format:

Electronic documents have an associated file structure defined by the original creating application. This file structure is referred to as the "native format" of the document. Because viewing or searching documents in the native format may require the original application (i.e., viewing a Microsoft Word document may require the Microsoft Word application), documents are often converted to a standard file format (i.e., tiff) as part of electronic document processing.


Document nesting occurs when one document is inserted within another document (i.e., an attachment is nested within an email; graphics files are nested within a Microsoft Word document).


A group of computers or devices that is connected together for the exchange of data and sharing of resources.


Any device connected to network. PCs, servers, and printers are all nodes on the network.

Non-native Environment:

Process in which electronic data is obtained directly from backup tapes without the need to recreate a native environment.

Obstruction of Justice:

According to Black's law dictionary, obstruction of justice means "impeding or obstructing those who seek justice in a court, or those who have duties or powers of administering justice therein."

OCR (Optical Character Recognition):

Optical character recognition is a technology which takes data from a paper document and turns it editable text data. The document is first scanned. Then OCR software searches the document for letters, numbers, and other characters.


Not connected to a network.


Connected to a network.

Off-line Data:

The storage of electronic data outside the network in daily use (i.e., on backup tapes) that is only accessible through the off-line storage system, not the network.

On-line Storage:

The storage of electronic data as fully accessible information in daily use on the network or elsewhere.

Onsite Extraction:

The extraction of high volumes of data from backup tapes at a client site.

Operating System (OS):

The software that the rest of the software depends on to make the computer functional. On most PCs this is Windows or the Macintosh OS. Unix and Linux are other operating systems often found in scientific and technical environments.


The traditional method of printing electronic files.

Paper Discovery:

Paper discovery refers to the discovery of writings on paper that can be read without the aid of some devices.

Parent-child Relationships:

Parent-child relationships is a term used in e-discovery to describe a chain of documents that stems from a single e-mail or storage folder. These types of relationships are primarily encountered when a party is faced with a discovery request for e-mail. A "child" (i.e., an attachment) is connected to or embedded in the "parent" (i.e., an e-mail or Zip file) directly above it.


Personal computer.

PDA (Personal Digital Assistant):

Handheld digital organizers.

PDF (Portable Document Format):

An Adobe technology for formatting documents so that they can be viewed and printed using the Adobe Acrobat reader.

Petabyte (PB):

A petabyte is a measure of computer data storage capacity and is one thousand million million (1,000,000,000,000,000) bytes.

Plain Text:

The least formatted and therefore most portable form of text for computerized documents.


A pointer is an index entry in the directory of a disk (or other storage medium) that identifies the space on the disc in which an electronic document or piece of electronic data resides, thereby preventing that space from being overwritten by other data. In most cases, when an electronic document is "deleted," the pointer is deleted, which allows the document to be overwritten, but the document is not actually erased.

Preservation Notice, Preservation Order:

As in Legal Hold- The specific communication to business or IT organizations may also be called a "hold", "preservation order," "suspension order," "freeze notice," "hold order," or "hold notice." A legal hold is a communication issued as a result of current or anticipated litigation, audit, government investigation or other such matter that suspends the normal disposition or processing of records. The specific communication to business or IT organizations may also be called a "hold," "preservation order," "suspension order," "freeze notice," "hold order," or "hold notice."

Private Network:

A network that is connected to the Internet but is isolated from the Internet.


Delivery of data or information in response to an interrogatory, subpoena or discovery order or a similar legal process.

PST (Personal Folder File):

The place where Outlook stores its data (when Outlook is used without Microsoft® Exchange Server). A PST file is created when a mail account is set up. Additional PST files can be created for backing up and archiving Outlook folders, messages, forms and files. The file extension given to PST files is .pst.

Public Network:

A network that is part of the public Internet.

RAM (Random Access Memory):

The working memory of the computer into which application programs can be loaded and executed.


Information, regardless of medium or format, that has value to an organization. Collectively the term is used to describe both documents and electronically stored information.

Record Custodian:

A records custodian is an individual responsible for the physical storage and protection of records throughout their retention period. In the context of electronic records, custodianship may not be a direct part of the records management function in all organizations.

Record Lifecycle:

The time period from when a record is created until it is disposed.

Records Hold:

As in Legal Hold- The specific communication to business or IT organizations may also be called a "hold," "preservation order," "suspension order," "freeze notice," "hold order," or "hold notice."

Records Management:

Records Management is the planning, controlling, directing, organizing, training, promoting and other managerial activities involving the lifecycle of information, including creation.

Records Retention Period, Retention Period:

The length of time a given records series must be kept, expressed as either a time period (i.e., four years), an event or action (i.e., audit), or a combination (i.e., six months after audit).

Records Retention Schedule:

A plan for the management of records, listing types of records and how long they should be kept; the purpose is to provide continuing authority to dispose of or transfer records to historical archives.


A centralized database stored on a computer that houses specific information.

Repository for Electronic Records:

Repository for Electronic Records is a direct access device on which the electronic records and associated metadata are stored. Sometimes called a "records store," "online repository" or "records archive."

Residual Data:

Residual Data (sometimes referred to as "Ambient Data") refers to data that is not active on a computer system. Residual data includes (1) data found on media free space; (2) data found in file slack space; and (3) data within files that has functionally been deleted, in that it is not visible using the application with which the file was created, without use of undelete or special data recovery techniques.


To transfer data from a backup medium (such as tapes) to an on-line system, often for the purpose of recovery from a problem, failure, or disaster. Restoration of archival media is the transfer of data from an archival store to an on-line system for the purposes of processing (such as query, analysis, extraction or disposition of that data). Archival restoration of systems may require not only data restoration but also replication of the original hardware and software operating environment. Restoration of systems is often called "recovery".


A piece of hardware that routes data from a local area network (LAN) to a phone line.


Sampling usually (but not always) refers to the process of statistically testing a data set for the likelihood of relevant information. It can be a useful technique in addressing a number of issues relating to litigation, including decisions as to which repositories of data should be preserved and reviewed in a particular litigation, and determinations of the validity and effectiveness of searches or other data extraction procedures. Sampling can be useful in providing information to the court about the relative cost burden versus benefit of requiring a party to review certain electronic records.


A network or series of networks that are not connected to other networks.


Scanning is the process of converting a hard copy paper document into a digital image for use in a computer system. After a document has been scanned, it can be reviewed using field and full-text searching, instant document retrieval, and a complete range of electronic document review options.


The ability to look within data and search by a name, date or keyword to find desired information.


Any computer on a network that contains data or applications shared by users of the network on their client PCs.


A sibling is a document that shares a common parent with the document in question (e.g. two attachments that share the same parent email or are sibling documents in the same Zip file).

Slack Space:

A form of residual data, slack space is the amount of on-disk file space from the end of the logical record information to the end of the physical disk record. Slack space can contain information soft-deleted from the record, information from prior records stored at the same physical location as current records, metadata fragments and other information useful for forensic analysis of computer systems.


Coded instructions (programs) that make a computer do useful work.


Spoliation is the destruction of records which may be relevant to ongoing or anticipated litigation, government investigation or audit. Courts differ in their interpretation of the level of intent required before sanctions may be warranted.

Stand Alone Computer:

A personal computer that is not connected to any other computer or network, except possibly through a modem.

System Administrator:

The person in charge of keeping a network working.

Terabyte (TB):

A terabyte is a measure of computer data storage capacity and is one thousand billion (1,000,000,000,000) bytes.

TIFF (Tagged Image File Format):

One of the most widely supported file formats for storing bit-mapped images. Files in TIFF format often end with a .tif extension.

Transmission Control Protocol/ Internet Protocol (TCP/IP):

A collection of protocols that define the basic workings of the features of the Internet.

Unallocated Space:

Space on a hard drive that potentially contains intact files, remnants of files, subdirectories or temporary files which were created and then deleted by either a computer application, the operating system or the operator.

Unstructured Data:

Data that is not in a delimited format. File types include word processing files, html files (web pages), project plans, presentation files, spreadsheets, graphics, audio files, video files and emails.

Vlog (Videoblog):

A vlog is a Weblog that uses video as its primary medium for distributing content. Vlog posts are usually accompanied by text, image, and other metadata to provide a context or overview for the video.

VPN (Virtual Private Network):

A virtually private network that is constructed by using public wires to connect nodes.

Web Site:

A collection of Uniform Resource Indicators (URIs, including URLs (Uniform Resource Locators)) in the control of one administrative entity. May include different types of URIs (i.e., file transfer protocol sites, telnet sites, as well as World Wide Web sites).

World Wide Web:

The WWW is made up of all of the computers on the Internet which use HTML-capable software (Netscape, Explorer, etc.) to exchange data. Data exchange on the WWW is characterized by easy-to-use graphical interfaces, hypertext links, images, and sound. Today the WWW has become synonymous with the Internet, although technically it is really just one component.


An open standard for compression and decompression used widely for PC download archives. ZIP is used on Windows-based programs such as WinZip and Drag and Zip. The file extension given to ZIP files is .zip.

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